THE SIMULATOR………… for safe, efficient and economic system operation training
Operation of an interconnected power system in India is coordinated through the State, Regional and National Load Despatch Centres in collaboration with the generation and transmission control centres. Prompt action by the System Operator during minute-to-minute operation as well as a system emergency is vital for the reliability of power system. In this regard, the regulation 5.1 (h) of the Indian Electricity Grid Code mandates that the control rooms of the National, Regional and State Load Despatch Centre, power plants, substations of 132 kV and above, and other control centres of all regional entities shall be manned round the clock by qualified and adequately trained personnel. Further, CERC in its order dated 7th May 2008 in suo motu petition 58/2008, endorsed the need for appropriately skilled operators for secure operation of power system in India in the scenario of continuous load growth, system expansion and multiplying number of organizations.
The system operator is required to possess the capability to clearly visualise the present state of power system, assimilate and analyse, draw conclusions and take action which are in conformity with existing grid code, standards and market rules.
A Despatcher Training Simulator (DTS) is in service at Power Systems Training
Institute (PSTI), Bangalore since March 2011. The Simulated Network comprises
of about 1000 stations and 2000 buses with generation voltages and 110kV and
above network. The actual network of National Load Despatch Centre as on April
2010 conditions is simulated in the DTS. The databases, displays, events, applications
etc. are implemented as per state of art Load Despatch Control Software. The
Simulator is providing a complete full scope and real time accurate simulation
of Grid Systems, processes, control and instrumentation, grid operations etc.,
for the Indian National Grid. IEEE representation in one-line diagram has been
The simulator is being utilized for imparting training in power system operation and allied areas. The Despatcher Training Simulator (DTS) provides realistic environment for the system operator to practice operat¬ing tasks under both normal and emergency conditions. The DTS responds in real time just as the response of the real power system. The Man-machine interface (MMI) used in the DTS is much identical to those used in system control centres. It raises the level of proficiency and builds up the confidence required to handle emergencies in an actual system operation. It is a comprehensive tool for training of Power System and Load Despatch Engineers and Despatchers.
The simulator can be used to train the engineers in the following aspects of power system operation:
• Control of active power flow to maintain transmission levels within permissible operating limits by taking appropriate measures (generation control and load management).
• Control of reactive power flow and voltage by adjustments of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) set points, transformer taps and switching on/off shunt reactive elements.
• Training in dynamic behaviour of power system between steady states including response of different power plants to frequency fluc¬tuations, automatic generation control signals and effects of power plant operator actions.
• Training in recognition of critical system conditions such as insufficient generation reserve, insufficient reactive support, trans¬mission line overloading etc.
• The despatcher can practice use of the load frequency control and economic despatch functions for following the system load. The trainee can have exercises on units’ ON and OFF control, adjusting regulating limits in co-ordination with power plant operators.
• Through the SCADA displays, the despatcher can open and close circuit breakers for removal or reconnection of Power System elements. He can co-ordinate with the sub-station operators.
• The despatcher can practice procedures for restarting a power system from black start, re-energizing transmission lines, loads and re-synchronizing islands.
DTS HARDWARE CONFIGURATION:
The details of the subsystem are as follows:
DTS functions reside in a server. The Man Machine Interface is similar to an actual control centre environment. The DTS server is based on Itanium processor. It is equipped with 6GB of main memory (expandable up to 8GB) and 2*146GB of disk storage (expandable up to 5*146GB). The DTS server is equipped with a DVD/CD RW combo drive, 4no’s of USB ports and two ports for LAN interface. Two 24” TFT with keyboard and mouse is delivered with the DTS server.
The trainer workstation machine is a windows based machine with three TFT’s connected to it. This is utilized by trainer to conduct class room training sessions on the system.
The trainer workstation is based on Intel Xeon quad-Core Processor. It is equipped with 4GB of main memory (expandable up to 8GB) and 2*160GB of disk storage (expandable up to 10*160GB).
Trainee Workstation Trainer Workstation
The trainee workstation machine is window based machine with two TFT’s connected to it. This is utilized by trainees during training sessions on the system.
The trainee workstation is based on Intel xeon processor. It is equipped with 4GB of main memory (expandable up to 8GB) and 2*160GB of disk storage (expandable up to 10*160GB).
Two 65” wall mounted LCD monitors, color laser printer (A3 size), laser printer B and W (A4 size) are available. One LCD monitor is connected to trainer workstation and the second to one of the trainee consoles.
The Local Area Network (LAN) subsystem interconnects all the servers, workstations and peripherals.
The DTS Data Base:
The Simulator Data Base is modular and designed in such a way that each application uses one module. The four database modules of the DTS are,
• NETMOM : The central source for the network applications, it stores the load flow input & output data, the system one line diagram, the station one line diagrams etc.
• SCADAMOM: It is provides Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) functionality. It stores the location of RTUs, the analog, digital and computed values of telemetered data, the communication routes, the data acquisition channel specifications etc..
• GENMOM: The central data source for the generation scheduling related applications; it contains the data of control areas, units and tie-lines. This subsystem provides real-time automatic generation control (AGC), transaction scheduling, and load forecasting.
• DTSMOM: The central data source for the unit prime mover, unit control system, synchronous machines and relay data. This contains the data regarding the type of unit i.e. hydro / steam etc., location and settings of relays
THE SIMULATION SOFTWARE:
In order to cater to the three distinctive functions namely despatch, simulation and training, the major program modules included in the DTS are:
• The Despatch programs such as SCADA/Automatic Generation Control (AGC), logging, alarming and trending.
• The System Simulation programs that simulate the long term dynamic response.
• The Remote terminal simulation programs for scanning power system measurements and sending out supervisory commands.
• The instructional programs that are used for setting up ini¬tial conditions of the simulator, scheduling events and monitoring performance.
• The Database compilation programs used by programmers and en¬gineers for building and maintaining the power system model database.
The following event types are supported:
• Open or close a circuit breaker
• Inhibit or enable supervisory control on a breaker
• Place a circuit breaker in stuck position so that it can not respond to any open or close signal
• Trip a relay
• Switch a plant controller's status between AGC and local control
• Ramp a unit to a desired MW output at a specified rate
• Change a load nominal MW or MVAR values
• Fail or restore communication with a RTU
• Specify the data quality of analog or status measurements as being good, bad or old
• Stop the simulation
These events let the trainee practice under adverse conditions, such as:
• Identifying problems based on limited information
• Restoring the system after a disturbance
POWER SYSTEM MODELS:
The Power System Modelling programs provide all simulated field data and its response to instructor commands, scheduled events from the simulation event processor, and application program and Despatcher control actions. The different modelling modules within the DTS subsystem are:
• Generator Model
• Frequency Model
• Load Model
• Transmission Network Model
• Relay Model
• External AGC and Interchange Scheduling Model
• SCADA Model
With the vast capabilities, as mentioned above, available with the DTS, event scenarios relating to power system operation and control have been developed at Power Systems Training Institute. These scenarios are used for demonstration to and practice by trainee officers during the training session. Some sample scenarios have been listed below:
• SCADA alarms and alleviation
• Reactive Power and Voltage control
• Automatic Generation Control
• Integrated and Islanded Operation
• Prevention of grid disturbance
• Blackout and Restoration
SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAMMES
Despatcher Training Simulator (One weeks)
Objective: To provide hands on training in System Operation aspects with exposure on generation, transmission, distribution, protection, electricity markets and management. The laboratory sessions (75%) shall be coupled with lectures (25%) on specialised topics and discussions on critical issues.
Participants: Engineers working in System operation, PGDC and M Tech Students.
Fee: Non-residential course fee is Rs. 14,000/- per participant for One week.
Hostel Fee: Rs 75/- per day per participents only for Students.
In order to meet the specific requirement of various customers, the Institute can also design need based simulator training programs for newly recruited as well as working professionals from Load Despatch Centres and the Transmission & Distribution sector.
Power Systems Training Institute is located within its lush green campus at Banashankari –II Stage, just behind the famous Banashankari temple in Bangalore. The upcoming Metro station is hardly half a kilometre from the campus. It is very easy to reach the Institute by road, rail or air.
Road: Less than half a kilometre from the Banashankari Bus Station
Rail: Nearly 10 kms from the Bangalore City Railway Station
Air: Nearly 45 km from the Bangalore International Airport
For details about the Despatcher Training Simulator training programs’
course fee, please contact:
Sh M.N. Murthy
(M) 9448904387, Land Line: 080-26713758
Power System Training Institute(NPTI)